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INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




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A NEW5 SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

OFFICE • OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR 

WASHINGTON^D.C. 




II2IAIS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OP THE ISSUE OP APRIL 1, 1937 

Volume IV Number 16 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

The Cover Design 6 

Principles Of Cooperation James E. Curry 8 

Chippewa Indians Undertake Cooperation ... S. N. McKinsey 12 

Some Essentials Of Cooperation A. L. Walker 15 

Pield Visitors At Washington, D. C 19 

Live Stock Associations Have Been Out- 
Standing Among Indian Cooperative 

Ventures 21 

CCC To Celebrate Fourth Anniversary 21 

The Potawatomi Harvesting Association .... Martin D. Cheadle 22 

Reading Trail Signs At Grand Portage Charles J. Evans 25 

Irrigation For Community Garden Tracts ... Ralph S. Bristol 26 

Indian Arts and Crafts Cooperative Com- 
pletes Successful Year 30 

The Indians Were Right 33 

Why I Entered The Indian Service 34 

Careless Drivers May Be Sent To Coventry 

In Special Car 36 

Cooperation: A Growing Form Of American 

Economic Enterprise Jacob Baker 37 

Cooperation In A Czechoslovak Village 39 

Swinomish Indians Rebuild Fish Traps 42 

Some Hazards of Cooperatives William L. Paul 43 

Is There A Need For A Cooperative Credit 

Union In Your Community? 44 

The Eskimo Store At Gamhell Nathan L. Smith 45 

Women's Group Activities - Potential 

Cooperatives Henrietta K. Biirton 47 

Reference Material For Study Clubs and 

Cooperative Associations 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 



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VOLUML IV- <APR.1L 1, 1937- <NUME>tR. 16 

BR. WILLIAM A. WHITE , SUPERINTENDENT OF 
ST. ELIZABETHS HOSPITAL . DIES 

Through Dr. William A. White's premature death, March 7, 
at sixty-seven years, from pneumonia, the Interior Department has 
lost its most eminent professional worker - possibly its most emi- 
nent since the beginning of its history. 

When the unspeakable Canton Asylum for insane Indians 
was abandoned, three years ago, the action was taken largely upon 
information supplied by Dr. White's medical director and it was to 
St. Elizabeths that the Indians were transferred. They were only 
one per cent of the vast patient population of St. Elizabeths: 
but by Dr. White and his staff they were accepted as being just as 
important as if they had numbered a thousand. 

Dr. White had gained international recognition as a stu- 
dent and healer of mental diseases before he came to St. Elizabeths 



in 1903. In thirty-four years he built up and developed St. Eliz- 
abeths into perhaps the world's most adequate institution for men- 
tal disease. Dr. White's range of application was immense and he 
was able to flash up and down the whole range with instantaneous 
efficiency. He was an exploring scientist and the industrious 
housekeeper of an establishment of nearly 8,000 persons. He worked 
in public movements as well, and his appreciations were wide-em- 
bracing. 

I recall my last time with him - alas, it was nearly a 
year ago. He discussed an individual case, one of five thousand 
at St. Elizabeths. He discussed the many-sided problem of peyote 
(a drug, a religious cult and a social institution), and what r9le 
St. Elizabeths might play in a renewed peyote study - pharmacologi- 
cal, physiological, psychological, anthropological. With enthusi- 
asm, not for the first time, he insisted that I look at the new 
Public Works buildings toward which he had been planning for many 
years. He escorted me through the dairy buildings and recited the 
economics of milk production at St. Elizabeths. He took me to 
gaze long across the misty Potomac from a spot that he loved and 
we went among the patients who by hundreds were roaming through the 
spacious grounds and were playing outdoor games. And I remembered 
that it was an anniversary significant in my own life and told him 
about it: how in Washington, thirty years ago that day, I had met, 
through a strange assignation, with one who had needed his help but 



had "been destined not to receive it and I had endeavored to tell 
this friend (thirty years before) of Dr. White's work which in- 
corporated the principles of Freud with those of William James. 

On the very day before he died, not knowing of his ill- 
ness, I was seeking Dr. White's cooperation in a research and 
service problem affecting the Indians and Spanish-Americans of the 
Southwest. St. Elizabeths is giving the needed cooperation. 

What single thought, among many, might be drawn from Dr. 
White's work and his nersonality? It would be the thought of 
patience and of enduring courage . Goals, when significant at all, 
nearly always are remote goals. His goal - the full release of 
the human endowment, the organization of human faculty toward hap- 
piness and greatness - was the most remote of all. Discovery, 
cumulative across centuries or thousands of years; reversal of bi- 
ological trends incidental both to peace and to war in the society 
of today; perhaps, too, slow changes, experimentally pursued, in 
the biological basis of human nature; and improvements in social 
organization slow, problematical and worldwide: all these are nec- 
essary if the sorrow of the all but countless population of the 
insane and the psychoneurotic is to be changed into joy, and into 
leadership in the work of the Race. Dr. White knew, as well as 
Virgil did, the "sadness at the doubtful doom of humankind." But 
therefore not the less but the more, he worked. Immediate applica- 
tion - sustained, kindly, strenuous - was the law of his life. Far 

3 



is the goal, unsure is the victory, hut nothing avails toward the 
remote and supreme end except work. 

Such a life as Dr. White's vivifies this thought for us 
all. And we all need the thought - peculiarly so in the years 
which are now upon us. Years in which pain grows more as aware- 
ness grows more - years of the dark and uncertain phase of the 
world's striving. 

******** 

From this life-record of an administrator who did not 
cease to 'be an exploring scientist, one suggestion among many to 
Indian Service might be drawn. 

To direct economically, efficiently, an institution with 
5,000 inmates means handling a flow of detail ceaseless and count- 
less. First things come first; and the management and the quantita - 
tive development of St. Elizabeths was Dr. White's first task. 

Among the mental cases were the paretics. Paresis, in 
its turn, is an end-phase of syphilis - syphilis in its third 
stage when it has attacked the central nervous system. For count- 
less centuries, paresis has afflicted its thousands and has brought 
total insanity and death. 

Some years ago, at St. Elizabeths, experiments were tried 
which consisted in the infection of paretic patients with malaria, 
thus inducing intense and recurrent fever. With the clinical de- 
tails we are not concerned. Enough, that malarial infection cured 

4 



third-stage syphilis and actually brought the recovery of paretics. 

This single achievement in experimental medicine "bulks 
larger in human accomplishment than the perfect static operation 
of a great institution, or even a great state, would do if continued 
for many lifetimes. 

Indian Service, viewed as an institution, eauals a dozen 
St. Elizabeths. For headquarters and for every jurisdiction, as 
for St. Elizabeths, the "flow of detail ceaseless and countless" 
must be taken care of, or all else fails; first things come first. 

But just as truly as St. Elizabeths, and in an even more 
many-sided way, Indian Service presents the opportunity for making 
new disco v eries - the opportunity for clinical experimentation in 
a large number of branches of social science. Most of all, the 
science of human management. 

This issue of "Indians At Work" deals largely with co- 
operation. The small experiment, slowly carried to success, at 
Rochdale , England, ninety years ago (Rochdale Cooperative) brought 
more of gain to human society than the efficient or inefficient 
administration of all the governments, all the businesses of Europe, 
in the same years. This statement is true even in retrospect over 
the brief span of time since Rochdale; but in prospect (remembering 
that cooperation is a new social, political, economic and human- 
relations institution, world-wide in availability and all-embracing 
in possible effects) it can be said that the forty-three Rochdale 
spinners changed the direction of history - they achieved a method 



of human advancement into a domain never entered before. This 
illustration drawn from the cooperative movement is an example 
merely. 

Indian Service, with such fatal ease, can lose itself 
in quantitative operations, in the effort to make some showing 
"all over the map" of Indian need, in the execution on the man- 
dates of law, and in the mere faithful doing of routines. Let us 
think of Dr. White, and of the thing he represented - administration 
and exploration, one and inseparable. Then let us remember what 
our greatest opportunity is. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

************ 

THE COVER DESIGN 



For the cover design of this issue we have used, through the cour- 
tesy of the Cooperative League of America, the Cooperative emblem. Dr. James 
Peter TCarbasse, President of the League, gives the emblem's interpretation. 

"The pine tree is the ancient symbol of endurance, fecundity and 
immortality. These are the qualities that we see in Cooperation. In the 
old Egyptian, Persian and Indian mythology, the pine tree and its symbol the 
pine cone are found typifying life and the perpetuation of life. The hardy 
pine symbolizes the enduring quality of Cooperation. More than one pine tree 
is used to represent the mutual cooperation necessary. The trunks of the 
pine trees are continued into the roots which form a circle. The circle is 
another ancient symbol of eternal life. It typifies that which has no end. 
The circle in this emblem represents also the world, the all-embracing cosmos, 
of which Cooperation is a part and which depends for its existence upon Co- 
operation. 

"The color of the two pine trees and the circle is dark green; this 
is the color of chlorophyl which is the life principle in nature. The back- 
ground within the circle is golden yellow, typifying the sun, the giver of 
light and life." 



GIANT TREES IN NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA 




PRINCIPLES OF COOPERATION 
By James E. Curry, Attorney 
Credit Section - Extension Division - Indian Service 



Indian cooperatives may "be chartered in Oklahoma hy the; Secretary 
of the Interior, by tribes when organized or by the state. Elsewhere they 
may be chartered by organized tribes or by states or they may operate as un- 
incorporated associations. 

The general meaning of "cooperation" has been so confused with its 
specific meaning that it has often been used to denote any system or enter- 
prise in which people work together instead of competing. The kind of co- 
operation which through long usage is entitled to the use of the capital C 
is not a general idea but a specific scheme of operation. 

A cooperative is organized by a group of -people to serve their own 
needs. Its membership is open to all who can make use of its services. It 
is democratically managed by its patron-members. It does not divide profits 
in proportion to investment as most corporate businesses do, but returns its 
excess earnings, if any, to its patrons in proportion to their patronage. The 
following are a few simple examples. 

A Consumers' Cooperative Club . Ten families collect $100. (Each puts 
in ten dollars or each puts in five and they borrow fifty.) One of the members 
acts as manager. They buy canned goods and other groceries from a wholesale 
house for cash. The goods are kept in the manager's home or some other con- 
venient place and sold to the other members as they need them at regular gro- 
cery store prices. Each month, after paying expenses, setting aside a fund 
for operations and making a payment on their loan, if any, they figure what 
they have made and divide it in proportion to the amount each has bought. 

An Onion Marketing Cooperative . Ten Indians find that they can get 
better prices for the onions they raise by shipping them to the city instead 
of selling to local buyers. But none of them has enough to make up a large 
shipment. So they get together all of their onions, obtain the use of a truck 
and appoint one member to drive the truck and arrange for selling the onions. 
He is paid for his work, the other costs are deducted and the balance is paid 
to the members in proportion to the amount and grade of onions each one de- 
livers. 

A Stove Wood Producers ' Cooperative . Ten Indians are spending a 
part of their time cutting and selling stove wood. One of them is better at 
dealing with customers than the rest, so he is made salesman. Each contrib- 
utes his part of the cost and they buy a power saw. They do the work together 



under a foreman who is also elected from the group. Under this new arrange- 
ment, they are able to cut and sell much more stove wood than they did he- 
fore. After -payment of expenses, they divide the money taken in in propor- 
tion to the number of hours of work each has put in, including the salesman 
and the foreman. 

The following are generally accepted as basic principles of coopera- 
tion. They should be viewed as general and adaptable rules, not as ironclad 
dogmas . 

1. Universality . Membership in cooperatives should not be 
arbitrarily limited. Anyone who can benefit himself by using the 
facilities of the cooperative should be admitted to membership un- 
less his purpose in joining is to harm the organization. The busi- 
ness set-up of cooperatives makes open membership advantageous. 
Since the members are patrons, the more members there are taken in, 
the more business there will be. 

Membership in Indian cooperatives which borrow from the credit 
fund is necessarily limited to Indians because of the terms of the 
appropriation acts. 

The principle of universality does not imply that cooperatives 
must be self-sufficient communities nor that cooperation must ex- 
tend to every phase of a cooperator' s life. Cooperators need not 
set themselves off in self-sufficient colonies but may merely apply 
a different technique to certain phases of our present commercial 
civilization, to the satisfaction of certain specific needs. The 
most successful cooperatives are those which begin with the handling 
of those commodities and services most easily supplied. 

2. Democracy . Cooperatives follow the principle of singular 
manhood suffrage which Americans use in political affairs. Votes 
are assigned, not one to each share of stock, but one to each mem- 
ber . To Indians or other working men not used to the plural voting 
system of modern corporations this would seem the fairest and most 
democratic system of sharing control. Singular voting is justified 
too by the fact that cooperatives are organized for service and not 
for profit. They are organizations not of capital but of people. 

Other elements of cooperative organization which foster demo- 
cratic control are frequent membership meetings and reports and the 
prohibition of proxy voting. 

3. Equity . The founders of cooperation believed that the 
customers of any business are the main factors in its success. They 
believed that any excess earnings are in the nature of overcharges 
and in fairness should be returned to patrons in proportion to their 
patronage. But to be fair to capital too, they fixed the return to 
be paid to members who contributed it at not more than the usual 



interest rate paid in the neighborhood. The principle of equity 
extends to employees in the form of fair wages and working condi- 
tions. 

4. Economy . Since cooperatives are not dreams but busi- 
nesses, business principles apply to them. They apply more for- 
cibly because the members of cooperatives are usually people hot 
skilled in commercial practice. So cooperatives generally do not 
extend credit to their patrons, thus avoiding the losses attached 
to credit business. They borrow only when necessary and repay 
quickly, -saving interest. They pay cash for the purchases of the 
cooperative, obtaining discounts. They maintain a careful and com- 
plete system of bookkeeping and auditing. They set aside ample 
reserves for expansion and for depreciation. 

5. Publicity . In a private business, the patron has no 
right to demand access to business secrets or private business 
affairs. In a cooperative each patron, since he has a share in 
the enterprise, is entitled to full information about its opera- 
tion. It is only when each member has a fair understanding of 
the business that he can exercise his share of democratic control 
intelligently. 

6. Unity. Members of cooperatives are united with one 
another by their common economic interest in the affairs and 
property of the organization. This unity is fostered by toler- 
ance for one another, fairness at meetings and by education of 
members toward working together. This economic unity, when 
coupled with open membership, brings a new spirit of unity to 
any community where cooperation flourishes. 

Cooperatives are united with one another by the practice 
of not competing with one another. Where trade territories of 
cooperatives overlap, they tend to federate and avoid the losses 

of competition. 

7. Liberty . Members of cooperatives join them because 
they choose to and are not forced in. They can enter or with- 
draw at pleasure. Some cooperatives have marketing agreements, 
but usually the members can trade with the organization or not, 
as they please. Cooperation needs no false enthusiasm nor de- 
votion to keep it from failure. It stands or falls on its ability 
to serve the community in which it exists and to serve its members 
better and more economically than other agencies do. 

The same principle of liberty applies to the cooperative as 
a whole. It should not be controlled by outsiders. Since the 
principal quality of such groups is that they are run by the peo- 
ple they serve, those people should learn by experience and as far 
as possible, have the responsibility for management of their own 
affairs. 

10 



VIEWS FROM SHOSHONE AGENCT IN WTOMING 




Dining Room 




Employees' Houses 



11 



CHIPPEWA INDIANS UNDERTAKE COOPERATION 



By S. N. McKinsey, Credit Agent 





RICE 




CHIPPEWA INDIAN CO-OP 
MARKETING ASSOCIATION 

CASS LAKE, MINN. 

Sanctioned and Approved by U. S. Bureau of 
Indian Affairs 



Not long ago, the economy of the Chip- 
pewa Indians of Minnesota was that of a woods 
people. They lived in abundance from products 
of the woods and streams. Then came the white 
man to commercialize the woods industry. The In- 
dian secured temporary employment as a woodsman 
in many capacities. Soon this newborn industry 
reached its peak. Then it started to decline: 
soon the Indian found his source of income ex- 
hausted. The timber reserves had been dissi- 
pated, the wild game killed or driven out, and 
other natural resources greatly diminished. 

The Indians accepted the inevitable 
and started to adapt their mode of living to meet 
the new requirements. They recognized the need 
of making a living from the soil. Most of their 
old interests had disappeared and in order to 
survive the Indians had to adopt practices en- 
tirely foreign to their past knowledge and inter- 
ests. This change in economic order provoked new 
thought, new ideals and a closer harmony of 
spirit. As an outcome, a new day is dawning for 
the Chippewa Indians. Out of the medley of 
thought has come action and with it the forma- 
tion of the new Chippewa Indian Cooperative Market- 
ing Association. 



One-Pound Package Of 
Chippewa Cooperative 
Association Wild Rice 



The purpose of this association is to 
engage in the production and marketing of Indian 
products on a cooperative basis. The general 
business is to obtain the natural and cultivated 
oroducts of the soil, woods and waters and to 
market such products cooperatively. The associa- 
tion elected its own Indian officers, appointed 
an Indian manager and started the purchasing and marketing of wild rice last 
fall as its first cooperative effort. Over eighteen thousand pounds of rice 
were purchased from Indian producers. The price paid for the product exceeded 
previous prices received for this commodity and helped to make the Indians 
conscious of a new productive industry. The rice was purchased by Indian buy- 
ers, taken to the warehouse where it was cleaned, graded and packed in attrac- 



12 



tive containers and is now 
being marketed at a reason- 
able profit to the associa- 
tion and its members. 
Through the cooperative, In- 
dian traditions and customs 
are being maintained and a 
new source of revenue de- 
veloped for the tribe. 

Wild rice is a 
product indigenous to this 
section and the present 
trend will help improve 
and perpetuate the industry. 
The cooperative is develop- 
ing markets heretofore un- 
known and eventually will 
create a larger and more 
popular demand for this 
product. 







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Gathering Wild Rice 



Yet these Indians of the woods have a greater vision than concen- 
trating their efforts on rice alone. They expect to expand their business 
into the making of maple sugar and syrup from their 100,000 maple trees; in- 
to a larger and fuller manufacture of native Indian arts and crafts products 
to meet the demands of the enlarged tourist trade; into the cooperative mar- 
keting of their thousands of skins, hides and furs; and to develop and im- 
prove the marketing of wild berries 
which grow in abundance in the woods 
cf the Lake States. 

The Chipoewa Indian Coopera- 
tive Marketing Association will even- 
tually take over the handling of many 
Indian products. The Indians are in- 
telligently planning for the future 
and hope to develop an organization 
that will merit the whole-hearted sup- 
port of every Indian in the Chippewa 
area. The developments, it is hoped, 
will bring substantial dividends to 
every member. It is realized that the 
individual Indians .can no longer de- 
pend uoon their own efforts in the mar- 
keting of native products. The turn 
in the road has been reached. It be- 
comes evident that cooperative endeav- 
or, intelligently directed and aoplied, 
can lead the Indians into a future 
which will pay dividends commensurate 

with the labor and efforts put forth in gathering and producing products 
economic imoortance. 'Much is yet to be realized, but the first construct 
steos have been taken. 




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SOME ESSENTIALS OP COOPERATION 
By A. L. Walker, Credit Agent 

Cooperative undertakings are born because a number of persons be- 
lieve that by acting as a group they can obtain greater benefits than by act- 
ing as individuals. Cooperative undertakings grow because of the services 
rendered members. They continue to develop and exert a beneficient effect 
only when they perform distinct services and otherwise prove advantageous, 
not only to members, but to the community as a whole. 

A cooperative should be formed only if there is a real need for it , 
and then only if the prospective members are willing to sacrifice time and 
effort so that the entire group may benefit . 

In the beginning, the group perfecting a cooperative organization 
needs the assistance of specialists to prepare articles of association and 
by-laws sufficiently broad to assure satisfactory and continuous operation. 
Operations must be guided by efficient directors who have the interest of 
all members at heart. Business details must be directed by a competent busi- 
ness manager. The volume of business transacted will depend upon the inter- 
est shown by members and the loyalty with which the association is patronized, 
regardless of temporary gains which may be realized by patronizing a competing 
concern. When the association has secured the confidence of members to the 
extent that they feel that the association's business is their own , the most 
critical period in the life of the cooperative is over. By keeping the mem- 
bership fully advised regarding the progress made, explaining the reasons 
for gains in business and fairly assigning the real causes for temporary 
losses and setbacks, a cooperative may develop to the point where it becomes 
a permanent influence in the advancement of its membership and the entire 
community. 



Existence Of A Real Need Essential 

The history of the cooperative movement reveals that unless organi- 
zations are perfected in response to the sincere demands of an adequate num- 
ber of people in the community and organized after impartially considering 
the possibilities of success and failure, they are very apt to fail, throw- 
ing an attitude of suspicion around future cooperative proposals of legitimate 
undertakings. As has been truly said, "The building up of a cooperative 
system is not a thing that can be accomplished overnight, but must begin with 
the member or prospective member himself and evolve out of recognized need 
and an understanding on his part of the problems of organization, management, 
financing, merchandising and membership relations." 1 



1 Cooper ative Mark eting, Senate Document No. 95, 70th Congress, First Session. 



15 



In the study of more than a thousand cooperative associations, the 
following were given as reasons for failure: 1 

Indifferent management 22.4$ Inadequate accounting system. .4. 6$ 

Lack of interest 23.3$ Lack of proper audit 4.1$ 

Insufficient "business 13.1$ Dishonest management 4.0$ 

Insufficient working capital. .. .11.3$ Property damaged "by fire 5$ 

Insufficient membership 8.9$ Capital stock falling in 

Too liberal credit 7.5$ hands of a few members 1.3$ 

It will be seen readily that lack of interest, insufficient busi- 
ness and insufficient membership accounted for more than 44 per cent of the 
failures of cooperatives. This is ample evidence that many associations are 
organized without a careful appraisal of the existing need for them. 



Adequa te Organization Struc ture 

When it has been determined that a cooperative may successfully 
operate and sufficient interest has been evidenced, articles of association 
should be drafted, setting forth: 

The name of the association; the purpose for which it is formed; 
the principal place of business; the term for which it is to exist; the num- 
ber of directors; terms of office ,and addresses; whether or not it is to have 
capital stock; if so, the number and par value of shares, and the number one 
member may hold; methods of setting up reserves; distribution of patronage 
dividends. 

Inasmuch as the articles of association are to be submitted to an 
officer, either State or Federal, in charge of issuing charters, care should 
be taken that only the essential features of the organization be enumerated , 
leaving the details of operation methods forthe by-laws. 

While incorporation of the cooperative is not necessary, it some- 
times has many advantages. By incorporation the liability of the members is 
limited. As a corooration it may sue or be sued, enter into contracts, hold 
property and exercise other rights. In an unincorporated association a 
member's risk may not be limited and other disadvantages are evident. 

The preparation of by-laws is of utmost importance. Salient points 
of the working plan should be set forth in detail in the by-laws, including 
the following: 



1 Ag ricultural Cooperatio n, January 1, 1924, p. 5. 



16 



Purpose of the organization; membership qualifications; method of 
management; the number and duties of directors; the number and duties of 
officers; selection of officers and directors; methods of financing; how 
exnenses are to be met; how earnings are to be handled; provisions for es- 
establishing reserves and methods of making amendments. 



Management 

Inefficient manage ment is the greatest single cause contributing 
to the failure of coopera ti ves . The responsibility of management does not 
rest entirely with the business manager, but also with the board of direc- 
tors. It is the duty of the board of directors to determine the course of 
action for employees, officers and agents of the association. The position 
of director should be looked upon as one of responsibility and not simply 
as one of honor. Each director should make a conscientious effort to attend 
all meetings of the board and should familiarize himself with the rights, 
powers and duties bestowed upon him. In conjunction with the other direc- 
tors he should determine the general policies of the organization commensurate 
with the best interests of the membership. 

While the responsibility of management rests upon the board of di- 
rectors, careful attention must be given to the selection of a competent 
business manager to carry out its wishes. The manager should have had some 
experience in a business similar to that for which the association is formed, 
and must be tactful, honest and industrious. He must have a knowledge of 
markets and marketing methods and have the ability and inclination to further 
the cooperative spirit among the members of the association. 

Financial Structure 

Like any business venture, a cooperative should make provision for 
its capital requirements for both operating and permanent purposes. A large 
amount of capital may not be necessary, but a cooperative should be provided 
with sufficient funds to care adequately for its requirements. Funds, may be 
necessary for organization purposes, for operating capital and for acquiring 
facilities. A portion of the money required may be raised by selling stock 
to members and the balance by negotiating a loan. When members back the or- 
ganization to the extent of subscribing for stock, they are more likely to 
take a personal interest in the efficiency of operation of the association 
and will support it with their patronage. 

It is usually possible to determine in advance the probable financial 
requirements of an association. Knowing the requirements, calculations can 
be made showing the amount chat may be raised from membership subscription 
and the amount that must be obtained from other sources. While operating 

17 



capital may be obtained by borrowing, the members of the association should 
contribute as much as possible. Borrowing for capital investments should be 
held to a minimum during the early stages of the development of the organiza- 
tion and it is usually preferable for an association to lease the facilities 
required until such time as the success of the enterprise is assured. 

If a loan is arranged, the members of the cooperative should agree 
to use one- fourth to one-half of the savings resulting fr o m operation for 
repayment . The memberships should be contented with the minimum Of ■oatronage 
dividends until adequate reserves are set up. Deductions, which should be 
made from savings before patronage dividends are declared, provide a reserve 
for losses which may be encountered and for the redemption of capital stock 
of retiring members. In no event should the directors be satisfied with a 
stock reserve fund of less than an amount equal to ten per cent of the paid - 
in capital. 

By regularly setting aside a certain portion of the savings, the 
association will in a short time ordinarily have sufficient capital to make 
substantial payment on facilities necessary for its business. 

Business Methods And Policies 

A commercial enterprise in order to be successful must follow 
established business methods. A cooperative, therefore, cannot afford to be 
satisfied with anything but the most complete business records and accounting 
system. Each and every member of the cooperative expects the same service 
from the association as he would if he were the sole owner of the business. 
To comply with his wishes and to satisfy his demands, complete records must 
be kept. By so doing, the membership can be kept informed on all features 
of the business and the management will be Bnabled to discover and stop the 
leaks and operate more efficiently. Not only should complete records be kept, 
but the books should be subject to a regular competent audit. 

Being too liberal in granting credit to members has resulted in the 
ruin of a number of cooperatives. Credit should be extended only in cases of 
extreme need , and only when security is given by the individual granted the 
privilege of running a credit account. A cooperative doing business on a 
cash basis can conduct its affairs more efficiently as the question of col- 
lection is never an issue and furthermore, when business is done for cash, 
all members are treated alike and jealousy and misunderstandings are mini- 
mized. In all events, the man who gets credit should pay for it. It has 
been shown that in large cooperative purchasing undertakings, the granting 
of credit costs the association 14 per cent. 1 



1 H. B. Babcock, "Elements of Success in Cooperative Purchasing", Journal 
of Farm Economics , Vol. 13, No. 3, July 1931. 

18 



Building on reduced prices in the case of consumers' cooperatives 
and fixed prices in case of marketing associations, has been the cause of 
many failures. A cooperative should be satisfied to meet the prices of its 
competitors in the business field. If there are surplus earnings as a result 
of operations, patronage dividends may be declared. Patronage dividends to 
members are comparable with profits to the operator of a business enterprise 
and seldom will the distribution of dividends cause ill feeling among the 
cooperative's competitors. If a cooperative starts a price war, however, im- 
mediately there will be a tendency for all competing business concerns to ar- 
ray themselves against it. 

No Magic Formula For Cooperatives 

Finally it should be stated that cooperative associations are sub- 
ject to the sane economic laws as commercial enterprises and cannot evade 
sound basic principles governing successful business. There is nothing super - 
natural in the cooperative plan which will assure absolute success ; neither 
is there anything in the plan w hich will cause a cooperative to fail when 
private business succeeds. F. W. Peck states the issue plainly when he says, 
"There is no magic in the cooperative business formula and so far ho supermen 
have appeared who have been able to c hang e the rules of ordinary business pro- 
cedure. The very acts of organizing, electing a board of directors, choosing 
a manager and developing the human relations between the manager and his board, 
his membership and his essential business and trade contacts, offer very real 
problems requiring the highest type of executive ability." 1 

Members of a cooperative association should realize that the business 
undertaken must be operated scientifically. They must also have a thorough 
knowledge of production, distribution, consumption and general economic don- 
ditions in order to compete intelligently with independent operators if co- 
operative undertakings are to warrant the place they assume to take in the 
modern economic structure. 

1 The Cooperative Way , Circular A-2 of the Farm Credit Administration. 

******** 
FTKT.D VISITORS AT WASHINGTON , D. C. 

The Klamath delegates, Dice Crain and Boyd Jackson, have been in 
the Washington Office during March, working out a budget plan for the use of 
tribal funds. The plan includes provision for agency support, a per capita 
payment, care of the aged and infirm, reimbursable loans and a reserve fund. 

Among other visitors at the Washington Office during March have been 
Superintendents Alida C. Bowler of Carson Agency in Nevada, Alambert C. Robin- 
son of Pima Agency in Arizona, and William C. Smith of Sisseton Agency in South 
Dakota; also Russell M. Kelley of Haskell Institute in Kansas, Chester B. 
Faris, Field Representative, Mary Stewart, Superintendent of Indian Education 
in California, and Richard M. Tisinger, Superintendent of Indian Education, 
Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, Arizona. 

19 



INDIAN COOPERATIVE CATTLE 






• r 

Sjfe, 

■ 

i. 7 
















Fort Hall Herd, 
Idaho 



Association Cattle At 
Blackfeet, Montana 





Association Cattle 

In Round-Up Corrals, 

Yakima, Washington 



20 



LIVE STOCK ASSOCIATIONS HAVE BEEN OUTSTANDING 



AMONG INDIAN COOPERATIVE VENTURES 



Perhaps the strongest co- 
operative work among Indians has 
"been in the field of live stock as- 
sociations. There are a number of 
such associations, several of which 
have done notably well. The opera- 
tions of these associations have 
been written up from time to time 
in "Indians At Work"; hence we do not repeat their history. Activities at 
Fort Hall, Mescalero, Port Belknap and Yakima are pictured here. Space 
limitations prevented the inclusion of more examples. 




Mescalero Cooperative Cattle 



******** 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS TO CELEBRATE FOURTH ANNIVERSARY ON APRIL 5, 1937. 

On April 5 the Civilian Conservation Corps, which has played so 
importarit a part in rehabilitating Indian life and lands, will be four years 
old. 

Director Fechner has suggested for all C.C.C. camos a repetition 
of the pleasant custom, followed on previous anniversaries, of holding some 
form of open house to mark the day. 

Indian agencies are making preparations to observe the anniversary. 



21 



THE POTAWATOMI HARVESTING ASSOCIATION : A COOPERATIVE GROUP 
Potawatomi Agency - Mayetta, Kansas 
By Martin D. Cheadle (Choctaw) 
Supervisor, Indian Rehabilitation - Holton, Kansas 

The Potawatomi Harvesting Association arose out of urgent needs. 

Last January when I came here as a Resettlement Supervisor to work 
with the Indians of the Potawatomi jurisdiction at Mayetta, Kansas, I was 




Association Members Making Hay, Potawatomi 

confronted with the task of equipping the Indians with stock, implements, 
food and feed. This country had already had two complete failures from 
drought. Their stock had died - horses, cows and hogs and their chickens 
too - from the want of feed. To begin with, these Indians had never been 
properly or sufficiently equipped to carry on a successful farming enterprise. 
My -oroblem was to enable these people to secure for themselves food, feed, 
stock and inrolements, and yet keep loans on a sound basis. So we started. 
The land in this country is black and heavy and it takes good heavy imple- 
ments to do the work. But we had to keep our loans down, so we cut on im- 
plements, thinking it would be possible to rent the needed equipment. We 
learned, however, after going through a crop year, that we could not depend 
on rented machinery. You must plant, plan and harvest at the right time; 
the season, demands it; and on this bla.ck heavy land, if you get very much 
rain, it puts you back badly. So you have to be prepared to strike when the 
iron is hot. We learned that rented equipment was not available for us when 
we needed it most. 



22 



How could these Indians procure this equipment? Obviously, indi- 
viduals could not secure loans large enough to buy it individually. The 
Resettlement Administration, throiagh its cooperative loans to farmers, made 
it possible for us to own this machinery collectively. 

A Cooperative Is Born Of The Common Need For Farm Machiner y 

The method was simple. It meant organizing and grouping the people 
who could use this equipment and those who could agree to work and promote a 
cooperative of this kind. That eventually "brought us to seven families who 
could use and be benefited from this cooperative. 



members: 



I will quote the partnership agreement entered into among the seven 



••Realizing the savings to be effected in the purchase and 
joint ownership of farm equipment, the undersigned do hereby vir- 
tually agree to form an association to accomplish this objective. 
This association shall be known as the Potawatomi Harvesting As- 
sociation. 

"Each member is to share equally in the ownership of all 
equipment owned by the Association and shall share equally in all 
benefits derived from the use of same. 

"All policies and actions taken by this Association shall be 
decided by a majority vote of all members, with the understanding 
that such action will meet the approval of the County Supervisor 
in charge of Indian Rehabilitation, or such other party as may be 
delegated by the Resettlement Administration. 

"Provided, however, that the Resettlement Administration 
shall have supervision over this Association only so long as the 
Association is indebted to the said Resettlement Administration. 

"Signed: James Wabaunsee, Sr. Frank Maines 
Raymond Burns Joe Levier 

Harry Niles Joseph Topash 

Joe Nioce" 

The members listed above have standard loans with us in addition 

to this cooperative loan. They are all Indians of the Potawatomi Indian Agency 

at Mayetta, Kansas, except Harry Niles, who is a white man, married to a full- 
blood Potawatomi Indian woman. 

The organization has its president and secretary- treasurer, operates 
under by-laws and meets twice a month. The last meeting of each month is at- 
tended by whole families and we invite authorities on various phases of farm 
and home life to discuss practical farm problems. 



23 



This 7al uable Equipment Available To All Members 

The loan made to the Potawatomi -Harvesting Association amounted to 
$2,198.00. The list of equipment purchased may be of help to some other 
group : 

1 grain binder, 8-foot with bundle carrier, with tongue truck 

and transport truck. 
1 corn binder with tongue truck and power bundle carrier, cut- 
ting corn and feed. 
1 combination fertilizer grain drill, 12-disc, 8 inches, 4-horse 

hitch for fertilizing and planting small grain. 
1 hay motor press with engine extension and screw jack, to bale 

prairie and alfalfa hay. 
1 feed grinder from 1 to 2-ton capacity per hour of chopped 
roughage or mixed feed. It is equipped with lOg- grinding 
plates, has 3 speeds forward, takes average size feed 
bundles, is equipped with 16" ball bearing exhaust fan to 
blow chopped feed into any mow. 
1 mowing machine, 5-foot standard mower. 
1 sweep rake, 2-horse 
1 manure spreader 
1 Farmall tractor 
1 grind rock and stand 
1 50-foot leather belt 



The Old Indian Land Story Reversed: Potawatomi Group 

Leases An d Works Land To Gain Common Income 

This year we had our third drought and crop failure. We have no 
cash income to meet our payments on our standard loans and our payments will 
double up in 1937; and then we have our cooperative loan also to meet. Some- 
thing had to be done to bolster up our cash income, so we decided to lease 80 
acres of Indian trust land for a cash rental. All members together plowed, 
harrowed* planted (each furnishing his share of seed), and when harvested, 
the money from this crop will go toward repaying the cooperative loan. 

We worked harmoniously together all summer baling hay, cutting grain, 
killing hogs, papering houses, being neighborly and helping each other with 
those that are sick. We have a round-robin meeting at all of our houses in 
turn. Naturally, we have had some misunderstandings but we get them straightened 
out in our meetings and we are many times stronger after we thrash out the 
trouble. Beyond a doubt it is a valuable organization. It has gone beyond 
my fondest expectations in spirit, friendliness, assistance and cooperation 
among the members. Others want to join the organization. I am confident that 
it will be the means of leading us to economic independence. 



24 



HEADING TRAIL SIGHS AT GRAND PORTAGE . MINNESOTA 
By Charles J. Evans, Project Manager 




There are a few Indians left who still 
have the art of translating trail signs made by 
man and beast. 



This happening took place late in Feb- 



ruary: 



Deer Caught In Snow* 



George H. Thompson, camp superintendent, 
while taking a short cut through the woods, ran 
across an Indian who was studying some snowshoe 
marks. To the white man, it appeared to be only 
a snowshoe trail with deer footprints mixed in. 
"Nine ahead and one behind," said the Indian 
positively, meaning there had been nine men walk- 
ing ahead, then three or four deer, then one man 
behind. 

That afternoon ten enrollees returned 
to camp and bore out the Indian's deduction. 
They had snowshoed to Mt. Maud and had run onto 
four deer floundering in the snow. As some of 
the boys had been working on the "Wild Life Con- 
servation Project " , they suggested that they 
try to herd the four deer over to the swamp where 
about 90 to 100 deer were being fed with cedar 
boughs lopped from the trees and some alfalfa which was donated. They made 
the trail and the deer followed them. One deer became exhausted and lay 
down. An Indian dropoed back and carried him. This accounts for the "nine 
ahead and one behind" which the Grand Portage Indian had deducted from the 
marks in the snow. 

* Photograph by George H. Thompson. 

****** 

METLAKATLA INDIANS MAKE DONATION TO RED CROSS 

The Metlakatla Indians of Annette Islands, Alaska, whose success- 
ful cooperative organization was described in the January 15 issue of "Indians 
At Work", have given, without solicitation, $1,000 to the Red Cross for the 
relief of flood sufferers. 



25 



IRRIGATION FOR COMMUNITY GARDEN TRACTS 
By Ralph S. Bristol 
Supervisor of Extension Work 




Practically all 
of the 7,915 acres of gardens 
planted by 6,739 Indian fam- 
ilies in the northern drought 
area were lost in 1935. These 
failures were mainly due to 
lack of moisture, although 
insect damages also played 
a leading role in the destruc- 
tion. Where there was mois- 
ture, insects could "be fought 
with some success. 



These failures in 
garden production have "been 
more or less a.cute for sev- 



Soldier Creek Irrigation 
Pump On Little White River 
era! years. Many methods of increasing production have "been tried in efforts 
to meet the emergency but until recently none of these methods have been at 
all satisfactory. 



Irr igated Gardens For Drought Co untr y 

The Indian Office is now developing what seems to be the answer for 
many of the Indians living in regions of slight rainfall by assisting with 
the development of irrigated gardens. The irrigation projects may be for the 
gardens of small groups of families or for an entire community, depending up- 
on local conditions. Close cooperation of the Irrigation, I.E.C.W. and Ex- 
tension Divisions gave this work a good start during 1936 and further work is 
being done this year. 

Several fundamentals are necessary for a successful irrigated garden: 

1. A depe ndab le w a ter suppl y is probably the most important. Fortunately 
many of our reservations are located so that the Indians are near large rivers. 

2. Reasonably good soil is the next problem in importance and investigation 
of the sites must be made to determine their feasibility in this regard. 3. 
A plan of obtaining the necessary water for the land must be thought out; 
this can be done either by pumping, direct diversion, or from storage. A 
limited amount of funds is now available for these needs. 4. These installa- 
tions should be made so that they can be maintained and operated by t he In - 
dians without financial assistance and at a reasonable cost to them. 5. The 



26 



land must be prope rly prepared for i rrigation so that water can be guided be- 
tween the rows without too much effort and with a minimum of flooding. The 
Irrigation Division is providing trained engineers to lay our gardens, line up 
ditches and set grade stakes for leveling the land. I.E.C.W. then comes into 
the picture to perform the heavier portion of the preparation. 6. With all 
of these provisions made, the Extension Division has the task of helping with 
the organization of the community groups for planting and care of the gardens. 
Irrigation at the right time, and careful cultivation at the right time a, can- 
not be overemphasized and these practices must be taught Indians not familiar 
with irrigation technioues. 

Learning From Mistakes 

A review of the experiences during the past year will assist in 
formulating plans for 1937 and prevent some of the mistakes in the past. Al- 
though preparatory work has been going on for several years, this program 
was initiated only a little more than a year ago and was practically untried. 
The need for better and more dependable water sunrdy in many instances has 
been learned. The land must be leveled and subdued. Late planting has proven 
to be a mistake in several cases, although this was due usually to necessary 
delay in land preparation. In some cases the Indians did not give their whole- 
hearted cooperation in the irrigation and cultivation of their tracts because 
this plan was new to them and not being familiar with irrigation they had 
serious doubts as to its success. Sometimes the soil was not too good on the 
tracts selected. Changes in locations may have to be ina.de for this cause. 
Employees and Indians should be on the lookout for pieces of land that are 
good possibilities for irrigation work and bring them to the attention of the 
superintendent . 



Tw o Successful Examples 



On the Rosebud 
Reservation in South Dakota 
several irrigated gardens 
were established during 
1936. Two of these were 
outstanding: they are an 
indication of results that 
may be expected elsewhere 
as these projects develop. 

A community gar- 
den organization was formed 
at the Soldier Creek Day 




These Vegetables Were 
Eaten This Past Winter 



27 




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28 



School through the cooperation of the teacher, the extension agent and the 
farm agent. A plot of ground was set aside, plowed and leveled by the Indians, 
assisted by I.E.C.W. ; ditches were surveyed and a pump installed on the creek 
by the Irrigation Division. The Indians in this community organization proved 
their interest throughout the summer by working steadily on irrigation and 
cultivation. The result was a fine supply of vegetables for winter use in 
addition to green stuff in season. Total production figures are impressive: 
Potatoes, 210 bushels; cucumbers, 170 bushels; summer squash, 700 pounds; 
pumpkins, 285 pounds; Hubbard squash, 6,000 pounds; and 30 bushels each of 
ripe and green tomatoes. 

A 4-H Club community garden was organized in the Rosebud Day School. 
The principal acted as leader and the Extension, I. E.G. 17. and Irrigation em- 
ployees helped. Thirteen boys earned from $12<>45 to $33.85 each for their 
own use. For the season the boys collected a total of $498.31, and after 
deducting necessary expenses and individual payments listed above, the grouo 
still has on hand or in charge accounts $85.71. They were happy and busy 
during the summer, earned their own spending money and learned something of 
irrigation gardening and cooperative community activity. 

With the most severe heat on record, insect pests the most plenti- 
ful in history and other obstacles, it has seemed to me that the season of 1936 
showed the practical value of these irrigated community gardens. Sound plans, 
faithfully carried out, can, in 1937, add materially to the Indian food sup- 
ply in drought areas. 

The Indian Service officials will be happy to have suggestions from 
superintendents and to answer questions that may seem to hinder such develop- 
ments on some reservations. 

It does not take a large piece of land to provide an amazing supnly 
of vegetables if the plants receive moisture when they need it . A piece of 
ground 200 feet square will provide more than a family of five can use. With 
a food supply assured, individuals and groups can make long-time plans for 
live stock and farming development. 




Soldier Creek Garden. Spraying Insect 
Control And Picking Beetles 

29 



INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS COOPERATIVE COMPLETES SUCCESSFUL YEAR 
Wa-Pai-Shone Craftsmen of Carson Agency, Nevada, Operate Trading Post 



Careful organization 
of arts and crafts work at Car- 
son Agency has during a single 
year resulted in a cooperative 
which is a going concern. Sales 
have totaled $786.10 (of which 
amount the Indians received 
$628.88). There has "been a no- 
ticeable improvement in the qual- 
ity of the crafts products. 

The Wa-Pai-Shone Crafts- 
men was organized in December, 
1935 and was incorporated under 
the laws of Nevada on November 
21, 1936. Its name was derived 
from the tribes most strongly 
represented in the Agency terri- 
tory: Washoes, Paiutes and Sho- 
shones. Anyone, living anywhere, 
can belong, but active membership 
is confined to qualified Indians 
living in the area who pay the 
modest initiation fee and dues of 
25 cents. Inactive members, who 
pay $3.00 initiation fee and an- 
nual dues, include white friends 
in various localities. 

The organization looks 
toward several objectives: It 
wants "to revive and perpetuate 
interest in the traditional handi- 
work of the Indians of the Great Basin; to protect their design and the stand- 
ards of their work, to increase production and to facilitate marketing." 

The Indians of the Carson area already had living crafts, some of 
them of notable quality, The problem then, was not only one of revival, but 
of maintaining interest in crafts; in raising, in some instances, the stand- 
ards of work; and in effective marketing. 

The need for capital was met through friends interested enough in 
the venture to make non-interest-bearing loans to the cooperative. 




-..>$£•■- ' : 



Cooperative Trading Post At Carson 



30 



One of the older 
schoolgirls acts as clerk at the 
post and is paid for her serv- 
ices. Sooner or later, as busi- 
ness grows, the question of helo 
in the management, accounting 
and orice-fixing work, now all 
done without payment, will be- 
come acute. For the present, 
the burden of organization and 
management has been carried 
voluntarily by teachers, notably 
by Miss Jane Jones, a twelfth 
grade teacher who is president 
of the organization; Mrs. Mar- 
tino Murillo, crafts teacher - 
herself a Mission Indian, who is 
vice-ore si dent ; and Miss Zelia 
Taylor, seventh grade teacher, 
who is secretary. 

The process of acquir- 
ing and selling stock has simply 
grown up as business has grown. 
Indians bring in their goods and 
name a price. The pricing com- 
mit-tee usually tries to give the 
price asked by the maker; some- 
times it may be felt that the 
price asked is not justified and 
the Indian may or may not with- 
draw the article. The effect of 
quality of workmanship and of use 
of native materials on price is always discussed with the worker. Pine work 
is marked with a tag bearing the Wa-Pai-Shone trademark; less careful, but 
salable work is accepted for sale, but without the backing of the trademark. 
(Unfortunately, says Miss Jones, sometimes articles of inferior workmanship 
and consequently low -orice sell the most quickly, perhaps because, to casual 
tourist trade, low price is an important factor.) Some Indians urgently in 
need of cash insist on immediate cash payment; some are willing to leave 
articles on a consignment basis, take a receipt and wait until sale for re- 
payment. They know that they can take their articles ba.ck at any time. 

One old lady left, after having sold several pieces for the first 
time, several more pieces to be sold. "Are you willing to leave them? We 
will pay you later," said a member of the oricing committee. "Yes," said 
the old lady firmly. "We trust you; this trading post no cheat us." 




Some Of The Wares Disolayed Inside 
The Trading Post 



31 



The consignment method is, of course, 
more of a clerical burden than the payment of cash, 
but until a larger capital is "built up, some busi- 
ness must be done by this method. The managers 
feel certain that better work can be stimulated by 
the payment of cash. 

Goods are priced to sell at a 25 percent 
profit. Within a year, profits, after deduction 
of various expenses, have come to $296.16. The 
constitution provides that after specified propor- 
tionate sums have been set aside for reserve and 
operating funds, the balance of the proceeds can 
be apportioned annually in cash upon the basis of 
the value of each commodity delivered by each mem- 
ber or patron. To this end, individual workers' 
accounts are being maintained; however, the day of 
cash dividends is still far-distant as debts have 
yet to be paid off (there are funds on hand to do 
this but the lenders are willing to leave their 
capital in until later), and reserve funds to be 
amassed. 

What sorts of crafts are handled? Most 
famous, perhaps, are the baskets. Some of the 
Washoe baskets and those made by Death Valley Sho- 
shones are superb: of sculptural shaoe, meticulous 
workmanship and beautiful and varied design. They 
are real works of art, laboriously executed, and 
they are priced accordingly. A large and hand- 
some Washoe basket may bring in $20 to $50; smaller 

Caskets, whose workmanship has been less time-consuming, may be obtained for 
$2.00 and up. 

Pine beaded work is done by both Paiutes and Shoshones. The cooper- 
ative has been able to buy for the workers superior seed beads of soft, yet 
brilliant colors and uniform good quality which greatly enhance the effective- 
ness of their beadwork. There are beaded baskets, beaded belts, moccasins 
and vests. Tnere are fine buckskin gloves, with or without beaded trimming, 
up to about $7.50. The well-cut plain work gloves which sell for $1.50 are 
so much in demand that it is difficult to keep them in stock. There are dolls 
in Indian costume, complete with tiny moccasins and gloves, and Indian baby 
dolls cozily wrapped in miniature baby baskets. 

The officers of the cooperative are not unduly optimistic but they 
are hopeful, and with reason. There are intrinsically good and salable crafts 
at Carson Agency; they can in some cases be imoroved in quality; it is evident, 
indeed, that they have already imnroved during the short life of the coopera- 
tive. Moreover, the direct method of marketing from Indian to tourist can 




The Cooperative's Trade- 
mark Por Pine Work 



32 



bring in, naturally, a much larger return to the maker; and later there is 
the possibility of dividends. There is no doubt that some of the interest 
in crafts, particularly in basketry among the younger women, would have died 
out among Carson Indians had not the organization been established. Basket 
making is hard work and the actual returns in money per hour are small, but 
as pick-up work during long winter months, it can bring in a worthwhile extra 
income. 

The present financial situation of the -post is solid, if not spec- 
tacular. On hand in the post are crafts articles worth $404.60, for which 
the Indian producers have received full value. Adding this sum to $628.88 
(the Indians' share of the $786.10 received for articles sold) gives $1,033.48 
as the total received by Carson Agency Indians from the post during the year. 

For most Indian women of the Carson Agency, crafts work can at 
best bring in only this small supplemental income, but for a few of the most 
gifted and skillful, it can be a good livelihood. One Paiute girl left 
school to go into domestic work; now she spends her time doing crafts work 
at home and cleared during the last six months, all in buckskin crafts, 
$100.50. One family of three women made $111 during the same period. One 
Washoe craftsman sold $63 worth of baskets during five months. 

The constitution permits the establishment of branch cooperatives 
and the officers of the Wa-Pai -Shone are confident that such branches can be 
established and made to pay - at McDermitt, for example, at Nixon, at Schurz 
and t>erhaps at Dresslerville. 

* * w * * * 



THE INDIANS WERE RIGHT 



Which weather orophets are the more reliable, the Indians with 
their century-old lore of nature signs and auspices, or the meteorologists 
of the weather bureau who base their forecasts on scientific observations 
and deductions? 

Custodians of the national monuments of the Southwest, administered 
by the National Park Service, point out that the folks in New Mexico and 
Arizona who banked on the prophecies of the Navajos that the present winter 
would be the most severe in years are high-hatting their neighbors who swal- 
lowed the prognostications of the United States Weather Bureau. This author- 
ity assured the farmers that they might look forward to another warm winter 
with abnormal rainfall, similar to that of the preceding year. 

The Indians were right. Prom all sections of the Southwest comes 
corroboration of their weather forecast. The latest official report just re- 
ceived at the Washington Office of the National Park Service states that 
old-timers declare the winter now closing has been the coldest, longest and 
stormiest they can recall. Reprinted from March 1 , 1937 - National Park 
Service Release . 

33 



WHY I .ENTERED THE INDIAN SERVICE 



A Social Worker 



My coming into the Indian Service was entirely by chance. I wanted 
a change from a job I didn't especially like, so I took a Civil Service ex- 
amination. I was offered a job in the Indian Service, which I had never 
dreamed of entering and in which I had no intention of staying. Here I am 
still - anything else would seem colorless now and I know I could never he 
happy in a Dig city again. Of course I am lucky here: I have a big area to 
cover, lots of freedom and variety and pleasant people to work with. I was 
at another agency once where the gossip and bickering were pretty bad; that 
makes a lot of difference in one's state of mind. 



A Teacher 

I was born in the Indian Service: My father was a superintendent. 
But frankly, I went into the Service myself because of the pay. I had begun 
teaching at $110 a month in 1930; then was cut to $100; then to $75. So I 
took a Civil Service examination which I never expected to pass, but I did, 
and was appointed ... Of course, I like it; it's got me like all the rest 
now. You see what it is like, though - dealing out relief, making mattresses 
and stuffing them, and today tanning buckskin with the woman's club. I was 
sacking rations last night, and do you know, this time the coffee came in 
beans instead of being ground up and I doubt if there is a grinder within 
forty miles .... I would have just about enough to do if I didn 1 t have to go 
over to the schoolhouse and teach every day. But who would want to do nothing 
but teach on one schoolroom? I know that lots of the outside work I do is 
really teaching too. 



A Woman Field Worker 

I came into the Service through a Civil Service appointment. I 
have enjoyed the work and still do. I love working with Indians; they are 
the salt of the earth. But some of the aspects of Indian Service life have 
come to get on my nerves more and more. I can't have any private life be- 
cause of necessarily having to live with the people I work with; and there 
isn't much social life anyway because of the isolation and the long hours. ] 
don't think I am unusually frivolous, but I do like good times and meeting 
new people. If I had any sense, I should have left the Service long ago, 
and before long, I think I will. 



A Stenographer 

I'm half Indian, you know, and I always wanted to get into the 
Service ever since I first went to Haskell. There's not much chance out in 

34 



my country in stenographic work or clerical work in regular business - the 
pay is awfully low. I finished Haskell in 1929 and started right in the In- 
dian Service the next year. 

An Assistant Superintendent 

I come into the Indian Service because the Philippines looked on 
the map to be too far away from home. I had just been married and wanted tc 
get started. I wanted to take a Civil Service examination for teacher but 
the only examinations being given were for jobs in the Philippines and in 
the Indian Service, so I picked the Indian Service, although I had never seen 
an Indian outside of a circus. 

Our first assignment, in 1915, was at Warm Springs, Oregon. I had 
a day school teaching job and my wife a housekeeper's position. I'll never 
forget my first impression. We got off the train at four o'clock one cold 
morning. There wasn't any station agent around and there wasn't any heat; 
my wife and I walked up and down the tracks and picked up enough wood to start 
a fire. Finally the stage came to take us out to Warm Springs - an old hack, 
driven by a great big Indian. We were scared to death of him. "You sit up 
front with the driver," I said, "and I'll sit in back on the trunk." "No in- 
deed," my wife said. "We'll both sit back on the trunk; then we'll be to- 
gether anyway." We got to know and like that Indian well and his son is here 
at this school now. I told him the other day that his father had nearly 
frightened me out of the Service. If we had had the money that first day, I 
know we would have turned around and gone right back to Illinois. 

Later on I changed over into clerical work. I've been property 
clerk, land and lease clerk, chief clerk and now assistant superintendent. 
This country is home to us now. I guess the longer you stay in this work 
with Indians, the better you like it. 

********** 
NEW USE FOR UMBRELLA. 

Long time ago in Sicux country Indian brave owned fine buffalo gun. 
There came to his camp a white man who carried a strange looking stick wound 
with cloth. This man' wanted to see Sioux brave shoot buffalo with his fine 
gun. They go find buffalo. Sioux brave get close to large buffalo and shoot 
but not hit him. Buffalo charge them. White man pointed his stick and "Puff!" 
Cloth shoots out like toadstool! Buffalo turn and run away. White man say 
his stick is umbrella but Sioux know better. He say it is Medicine Stick and 
trades his gun to white man for it. Next day Sioux brave go walking with 
Medicine Stick. He cross railroad track and see fire horse coming. "Huh!" 
he say, "Fire horse! I scare him like buffalo!" He stand on track and "Puff!" 
goes Medicine Stick! Iron horse not stop! Dead Sioux brave and umbrella on 
track! 

35 



CARELESS DRIVERS MAY BE SENT TO COVENTRY IN SPECIAL CAR 



On one reservation, drivers of government cars whose carelessness 
has brought repeated trouble on themselves and others and damage to govern- 
ment property may be required to drive the red-painted truck shown below, as 
part of a proposed safety campaign. 




Poor Drivers May 
Be Assigned To 
This Red Truck 




Wruthless Punishment For Wreckless Drivers 



36 



COOPERATION : A GROWING FORM OF AMERICAN ECONOMIC ENTERPRISE 
By Jacob Baker, Member of the Inquiry on Cooperative Enterorise 



Coonerative enterprise has bulked far larger in Europe 
than in this country. In many European countries cooperative so- 
cieties are an important part of the total economic structure - 
real "big business." That is by no means true in the United States: 
here cooperatives have hardly made a mark in the total volume of 
this country's business. 

But it has seemed likely, to the group* which President 
Roosevelt sent abroad to study cooperation in Europe, and which 
reported to him recently, that cooperation will increase in this 
country. As people whose economic resources are in general lim- 
ited, who in many cases live far from markets, and who already 
possess solidarity and a tradition of working together in groups, 
Indians are one of the groups in this country among whom coop- 
eration may well increase. 

There may be in the minds of some the thought that co- 
operation smacks somehow of alien nolitical views, that it is un- 
American, that it results in undercutting and ruining private busi- 
ness. This has not been borne out by the facts. Cooperation has 
flourished in countries of varying political faiths and has become 
identified with none. In countries where cooperation is particular- 
ly strong, as, for exaranle, in Great Britain, cooperatives have 
not ruined nrivate business, but have competed with private business 
openly and fairly, and may be said to have steadied private business 
because of their stable financing and operation methods. 

They have had an enviable record of business success, and, 
moreover, they have raised the standard of living of their thous- 
and members. In other words, cooperation is a respectable and 
time-tried movement, and it is an effective one. 

There follows on page 39 a brief description of coopera- 
tion in a Czechoslovak village. The movement started on a modest 
scale and grew - not rapidly - until now it has permeated and re- 
created the life of the village. 



Jacob Baker, Leland Olds, Charles E. Stuart, Robin Hood, Clifford 
Gregory and Emily Cauthorn Bates. 

37 



VIEWS FROM A CZECHOSLOVAK VILLAGE 




On The Way To The Festival 




An Af ter-Churcn Gathering 
38 



COOPERATION _IN A CZECHOSLOVAK VILLAGE 

(Reprinted by permission from the Report Of 

The Inquiry On Cooperative Enterprise In Europe, 1937.) 

Sany is a typical small-farm village of Czechoslovakia, situated 
in the Bohemian lowlands in a sugar-beet region. Isolated from the influ- 
ence of town life, it offers one of the clearest examples of the effects of 
cooperation on farm life. Cooperation has for many years been an integral 
part of all phases of life in Sany. 

Land reform, following the abolition of serfdom, made Sany a vil- 
lage of small farmers, and of small tradesmen and workers, many of whom farm 
small holdings of land. Nearly half (46 per cent) of its present population 
of 521 are farmers. The average size of a farm in Sany is about 10^ acres; only 
five farms have more than 50 acres, and only ten have more than 25 acres. 
The chief agricultural products are sugar beets, chicory and cereal crops. 

Debt; Low Prices For Produce; Lack Of Organization 

The area of land under sugar-beet cultivation has been restricted 
somewhat as the result of an early struggle between the beet sugar factories 
and the sugar-beet growers. In their fight for better prices the sugar-beet 
growers found their best weapon the boycott of the sugar factories. The 
light soil at Sany is suitable for the cultivation of chicory on a large 
scale, so the farmers began to produce more of this crop in place of sugar- 
beets. But they had to cart their chicory along bad roads to drying houses 
eight or nine miles away, where they were offered very low prices. Their 
earnings were meagre, and they were sunk in debt. Crops failed in some years; 
and again, there was overproduction of chicory throughout the country, which 
depressed prices below cost of production. To remedy their situation it was 
necessary for them to improve their methods of handling their crops. The 
parish, however, as the local administrative unit, could not even construct 
good roads for them. 

Group Study Begins 

Into this situation the cooperative movement was introduced, be- 
ginning with the foundation of the Farmers Reading and Social Society in 
1888. Through this Society the farmers were furnished with agricultural 
journals and popular books on farm methods. There were discussions on farm- 
ing questions, and lectures by experts, teachers, professors of technical 



39 



schools, and successful farmers. The teachers and priests of the village 
gave their hacking. From this Society came the idea of carrying out exten- 
sive works of land improvement , land drainage, and regulation of the local 
stream by a water-conservation cooperative. And from this same Society came 
the idea and organizational work of the present cooperatives in Sany. 



Cooperat ion Begins With A Cred i t Society 

The oldest of these cooperative associations, set up in 1897, is 
the Sany Credit Society, which provides its memhers at favorable rates of 
interest with the money necessary for carrying on their various businesses; 
in 1934 it had 241 members. It has enabled many people in Sany to purchase 
land and acquire houses of their own, converting their mortgage debts into 
long-term loans. The Society also furnishes credit for the joint purchase 
of farm machinery and consumers' goods, and the joint sale of farm produce. 

The Society acquires its funds in the form of members' deposits; 
each member must subscribe for at least one share, which may be paid for in 
ten monthly instalments. Loans of the Society are covered by joint liabili- 
ty of the members. A rule provides that the difference between the interest 
paid on deposits and that charged on loans, plus fees and administrative ex- 
penses, must not exceed 1.5 per cent. 



A General Purpose Cooperative Follows 

The Farmers' Cooperative Society was organized (shortly after the 
Credit Society) with the primary purpose of establishing a local drying-house 
for chicory, thus doing away with the loss of time and money involved in 
taking the chicory over bad roads to neighboring villages. By 1900 Sany had 
a drying-house of six ovens, which has since been enlarged and has come to 
be the main cooperative enterprise in the sphere of production. 

The Farmers' Cooperative acts as a general purpose society; it sup- 
plies its members with their needs for production and consumption, it markets 
their products, and it gives instruction in methods of agriculture. It also 
makes production loans against growing crops. The effective development of 
its financial strength has been accomplished without any state subsidies. By 
1929 this Society has built up a membership of 160 families. 

In 1903 the Farmers' Cooperative Society set up a bakery which has 
proved very successful. At first the bread was sold only to members in ex- 
change for flour or grain; but the bakery soon ceased to be merely a self- 
help undertaking, and became a profit-making enterprise for the Society. It 
now sells bread to non-members as well as members and serves a wide range of 
consumers in Sany and the adjacent area. Hardly any village family now bakes 
bread at home. The Society also has a flour-mill to serve the requirements 

40 



of the "bakery. Attached to the flour-mill is a seed cleaning station. Not 
much more than actual cost is charged the farmers for cleaning and washing 
their cereal seed. 

The net surpluses of the Farmers' Cooperative Society are not dis- 
tributed; such funds as are not required for the expansion of the Society's 
activities are used for community purposes. 

Agricultura l Machinery Society For Equipment An d Power 

The Agricultural Machinery Cooperative Society was set up in 1906. 
It owns machinery which it lends to its farmer members. It also provides all 
its members (who now number 173) with electric current for general lighting 
and for the driving of motors. The Society originally had its own electrical 
power station, but now secures its current from an electrical power suooly 
federation serving the region. The Society's equipment includes three elec- 
tric threshing machines, three electric generators, and a number of machines 
for soil cultivation. Through this collective purchase of farm equipment, 
the farmers are able to make use of the most efficient machine methods of 
production. 

These three societies arose within the space of ten years. They 
have been highly successful not only in facilitating the purchase of farm 
reouirements and consumers' goods, and in improving market conditions and 
prices, but also in spreading the use of electricity and technical iraorove- 
ments. Some of the older cooperative enterprises in Sany, the Land Improve- 
ment Society, the Forestry Society, and the Game-hunting Cooperative, have 
been absorbed by the Farmers' Cooperative Society. 



Cooperative Societies Become Civic Groups 

The cooperatives in Sany have extended their influence to all phases 
of the village life, raising the standard of living of the entire nopulation. 
Increased profits from farm production, and the saving of money and time ef- 
fected by the credit, purchasing, and machinery cooperatives, have enabled the 
farmers to improve their homes and develop the social and recreational organi- 
zations of the community. 

Many new houses have been built and old ones renovated as a direct 
result of cooperative organization, through cooperative credit. The general 
aopearance of the village homes has been altered, and hygienic conditions 
throughout the community have been greatly improved. Families now live in 
larger rooms and in more healthful homes. Practically every family has a 
house of its own. There has been an increase of 56 per cent in the number of 
houses in Sany during the 35 years of cooperative activity. 

41 



The cooperative societies have fostered public enterprises such as 
the building of a railway station and sidings, regulating the river, con- 
struction of roads, planting of public orchards, equipping the school gym- 
nasium and fire department, and the erection of schools, a post-office, and 
a public library. The public baths, set up by one of the cooperatives, are 
an important contribution to the health and comfort of the village, where 
(as in most European villages) facilities for baths in homes are extremely 
rare. The baths use the surplus steam produced in the operation of the 
flour mill. 

Participation of all groups in cooperative undertakings has been 
a unifying element in the village life. The rise of national political 
parties has so far failed to destroy this economic unity, although the peo- 
ple of Sany are by no means unaffected by political currents... They take 
great pride in the fact that, whatever their political or religious affila- 
tions, they have learned to conduct their economic affairs on a cooperative 
basis for the good of the entire community. The economic progress of the 
people has aroused the attention of neighboring villages and parishes, and 
the methods of Sany have been coxiied widely. 

* 4******** 

SWINOMISH INDIANS AT TULALIP AGENCY IN WASHINGTON REBUILD FISH TRAPS 

(Excerpt from "The Swinomish People And Their State", by . C. Unchurch, 

in the Pacific Northw est Quarterly . October 1936. p. 293.) 

"In 1934 the Swinomish Tribal Council borrowed $1500 and constructed 
a small fish trap on their tribal tide lands. An early storm destroyed the 
structure but .not until it had proven its value and about $1200 worth of fish 
had been marketed in addition to a liberal distribution to members of the tribe 
In 1935 the same council borrowed $4200, rebuilt this trap and added a second. 
These traps operated until July 17 when the Indian operators were arrested by 
order of the State Pish Commissioner for operating traps in violation of state 
law of Washington. They had made enough to repay their loan and after several 
months* delay, in which they lost the season's fishing, the Superior Court of 
Skagit County decided in favor of the Indians since the traps were located on 
Indian land between high and low tide and therefore were not within the juris- 
diction of the State. They have this year rebuilt their traps and have earned 
enough to nropose other cooperative enterprises." 

Note ; We wish we might have quoted more fully from Superintendent 
Upchurch's article, from which the excerpt above was taken. The article as 
a whole is an example of what a jurisdiction superintendent can do in learn- 
ing the historical and social background of his Indians and putting it to good 
use - in this case, assisting the Swinomish Indians at Tulalip to work out a 
satisfactory "design for living" under the provisions and opportunities of 
the I.R.A. 

42 



SOKE HAZARDS OF COOPERATIVES 

By William L. Paul 
Field Agent - Indian Service 

Not many years ago, a thousand or more fishermen in Alaska, with a 
determination to succeed, saw their cooperative fisheries efforts fail and 
lost several hundred thousand dollars. Other cooperative efforts such as co- 
operative stores have also failed, even where the "co-op" was the only store 
in the communi ty . 

Naturally people are apt to blame the cooperative form of doing 
business. This condemnation is itself wrong because cooperative enterprise 
can succeed. 

The principle of cooperation is sound, particularly where the mem- 
bers have the same social and cultural background. Nowhere is this more true 
than in Alaska, which leads us to inquire - why did these efforts fail? 

The important reasons appear to the writer to have been (l) bad 
management; and (2) dissatisfaction among the members. 

The bad management was due principally to inexperience or lack of 
capacity on the part of the manager. These managers have been both Indians 
and white school-teachers, appointed sometimes by the government or by the 
Indians themselves. Sometimes real management has been left to school-teach- 
ers who had no commercial or other business experience or to boys just home 
from school and equally inexperienced. Where the management was left to the 
members, often the manager was employed not on the basis of ability, but as 
the representative of a strong faction. This method only provided a reason 
for continued strife among the factions. 

Sometimes, even where the management was good, discontent grew 
among the members because the Indian members failed to appreciate what the 
manager was doing for them and what they should expect from the business. 
Sometimes this discontent grew from the inability of the unlettered Indian 
to participate in the operation and to learn the business. There is every 
reason to say that the government's efforts have been sincere and the teach- 
er-management conscientious; yet it should be said that a common mistake has 
been that these managers failed to teach ueopie to handle their own business 
by handling the job themselves. 

Perhaps there was an occasional tendency to belittle the Indian's 
capacity because of his lack of education. We feel that far more could have 
been accomplished if the Indians had been trained. Too often, also, good 



43 



teacher-managers were developed at some point only to he lost through trans- 
fer or removal from the service. Then the process of education had to he 
repeated. 

There are, however, many examples of successful cooperative en- 
deavor in Alaska (see page 45) and many more can succeed, but they must he 
built upon a sound basis. Members must have an understanding of the require- 
ments of the business; what they can rightfully expect from it; and must be 
loyal to it. They should develop sound organizations and plans of operation. 
They should employ capable managers and provide sound financial structures. 
They should adopt a consistent educational program and provide regular and 
adequate audits. 

Experienced business men, such as investment bankers, say that 
management constitutes 75 per cent of the business hazard. Many members of 
cooperatives think that small wages mean high dividends, whereas small wages 
usually mean small experience, and small experience usually means large 
losses. "Old men for council; young men for battle" is still a sound rule. 
The old men have paid for what they have learned and thus become cautious, 
and so, out of their experience, our successful seal hunters say "Never allow 
a young man to occupy the hunter's place, for to miss a sea otter is to 
spread discontent and disaster among the cooperators who sit in your canoe." 

There is no land better adapted by resources and by a people who 
are from ancient times accustomed to cooperative effort than the Territory 
of Alaska. The Indians there still believe in sharing. They hunt together. 
They fish together. They constantly do things together. With proper advice 
to direct their cooperative efforts and adequate help in financing, there is 
every reason to believe that the many requests now coming in from those peo- 
ple will result in successful cooperative enterprises. 



IS THERE A NEED ggg A COOPERATIVE CREDIT UNION IN YOUR COMMUNITY ? 

Credit unions are cooperative associations operating for the puroose 
of promoting thrift and creating a source of credit for provident and produc- 
tive purposes. Members accumulate savings in their respective credit unions 
and receive loans from the accumulated savings. Credit unions are not new. 
The first ones were organized abroad in 1848 and the plan has spread to many 
parts of the world. A big impetus was given to the credit union movement in 
America by the passage of the Federal Credit Union Act, approved June 26, 1934. 

Information on the operation of credit unions may be obtained from 
the Farm Credit Administration or the Office of Indian Affairs. 



44 



THE ESKIMO STORE AT GAMB3LL . ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND 
B7 Nathan L. Smith, Community Worker, Kake, Alaska 




St. Lawrence Island Family Dressed For Winter 



St. Lawrence 
Island is probably best 
known as being one of 
Alaska's most isolated 
outposts, occupied by 
very primitive Eskimos. 
In recent years, sever- 
al archaeological ex- 
peditions have been 
there and this work has 
served to focus atten- 
tion on the primitive 
side of life. Old cus- 
toms, dress and habits 
are unquestionably ab- 
sorbingly interesting, 
but they are only one 
side of the picture. 
What is probably not 
so generally known is 
that the two most progressive and successful native stores in Alaska are lo- 
cated at Gambell and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island. This article deals with 
the Gambell store, but it should be remembered that there is one in Savoonga 
which, while in a smaller village, does a larger business. In a good year, 
the combined sales of both stores approximate $35,000. The population of the 
entire island is only about 450 Eskimos. 

In 1911, the first Eskimo cooperative store in Alaska was started 
at Gambell by Dr. E. 0. Campbell, teacher in charge of the Office of Educa- 
tion school there at that time. It was called the Eskimo Building and Loan 
Association and its original purpose, as expressed on some of the old station- 
ery, was "to assist the Eskimos in building hospitals, churches and homes and 
developing industries." It is only within" the past few years that the store 
has been in a raosition to make a beginning toward carrying out this purpose. 

St. Lawrence Island was an exceptionally good place for such a ven- 
ture. Its i-solation and the conroaxatively prosperous state of its people 
gave it a considerable advantage. The isolation has served to restrain, but 
not eliminate competition. There have always been trading ships making their 
annual visits to the island. Twenty years ago, there were more than the pres- 
ent two. The habit of saving their annual fur catch to trade with the "ships" 
was firmly rooted, as for many years this was the natives' only way of getting 
white man's goods. 



45 



The Gambell store has gone through frequent ups and downs, with 
the downs predominating, and at times has been perilously close to the rocks. 
But it has pulled through and at the end of a quarter century it is in ex- 
cellent shape. It exerts a good influence on almost every phase of life in 

the community. 

A store is, of course, a business proposition and it must make a 
profit to exist. A cooperative store, however, has a second duty which is 
just as important, and that is to do the greatest amount of good possible in 
the community. I think that for the past few years the store at Gambell has 
done just that. Since 1934, it has donated outright for community work about 
$1,500.' This money has been used to buy equipment for the workshop, community 
kitchen and laundry. From it has also come the fuel and upkeep of these proj- 
ects as well as the cash for innumerable acts of charity. 

Aside from the outright donations, the store has assisted in many 
emergencies. In the winter of 1934-35, word reached the village that the 
people at South West Cape (about thirty miles south of Gambell) were out of 
food and fuel and were eating bootstraps and their dogs. The council imme- 
diately got volunteers with dog teams to go there, and the store furnished 
sufficient food and fuel to tide them over until the hunting improved. The 
winter of 1935 was an exceptionally hard one and due to the poor hunting there 
was a serious food shortage. At its most critical point the store stepped in 
and furnished staple groceries. The teachers prepared nourishing noon-day 
meals which were served to all school and pre-school children until the hunt- 
ing improved and their natural food supply was replenished. There have been 
many other instances of the store's coming to the aid of the community. 

The store helps indirectly too. It has developed a good business 
in carved ivory. During the year 1934-35, work done on order brought in over 
$2,000. This, of course, provided additional income for the natives during 
periods when there was no income from furs. Another benefit which most of the 
natives do not see, has resulted from the policy of the store of pricing ne- 
cessities as low as possible, making the profit on luxuries. At present, the 
store is financing the operation of a new reindeer herd near Gambell to pro- 
vide an emergency food supply. It has also purchased and installed a radio 
station and a light plant which furnishes light for the store, community shop, 
mission, school and teacher's residence. 

This program has been carried out without in any way jeopardizing 
the financial condition of the store. In spite of the fa.ct that fox skins 
(the chief source of income) are not far above their lowest price in ten years, 
the store has assets of approximately $35,000 and no liabilities. The assets 
are divided roughly as follows: $20,000, merchandise; $4,000 to $5,000 build- 
ings, equipment and so forth; and $10,000 cash in its Seattle bank account. 

To the men of Gajibell, especially Andrew, Lloyd, Lawrence and Ernest, 
great credit is due for getting the store in its present condition. When we 
are inclined to question the value of our work among the Eskimos, we have as- 
surances of its value in men like these of Gambell who have been helped by 
the Government and who in return have done their best to help their own commun- 
ity. 

46 



WOMEN' S GROUP ACTIVITIES - POTENTIAL COOPERATIVES 

By Henrietta K. Burton 

Supervisor of Home Extension Work: - Indian Service 




Pima Home Extension Council Planning 
Program Of Work 



There is nothing 
new about Indian women work- 
ing together. Women - all 
women - like to work togeth- 
er. It seems to he a uni- 
versal trait. Indian women 
get together. They are sur- 
rounded almost at all times 
by members of their family 
or by friends. At the close 
of one day, in which a num- 
ber of home calls had been 
made, we reflected that not 
in a single case had we 
found an Indian home-maker at 
home alone. A former super- 
intendent said, "During 
forty-two years of Indian 
Service work, in which I 

visited hundreds of homes, I cannot recall a single instance where I found 

an Indian woman at home alone." 

Grout) meetings and group work among the women can be promoted by 
skillful leaders. On the Pima jurisdiction seventeen Home Extension Clubs 
are functioning with 355 members. In June a Home Extension Council was or- 
ganized. The meeting of 100 per cent attendance of delegates was an outstanding 
event. The delegates evolved a program of work for the year. All the Home 
Extension Clubs are organized with a full staff of active officers and meet- 
ings are conducted by parliamentary rule. The clubs meet each month. Twelve 
of the elubs held money-making activities during the year and cleared $463. 
This money was used for charity, community entertainment and the purcha.se of 
Indian women's demonstration supplies. The policy of the home extension work 
on this jurisdiction has been to stimulate initiative, self-reliance and self- 
support among the Indians by working through Indian organizations headed by 
Indian leaders on projects approved by the Indians of the reservation and in- 
tended to increase the average income of each family and improve the general 
living conditions. 

These Indian women can, if they wish to do so, develop formal co- 
operative organizations. Their leadership is trained and ready. They are 



47 



studying consumer subjects at their meetings. Various Indian women's co- 
operatives already exist informally throughout the Indian Service. Almost 
every group of Indian women under an improvised shelter by the roadside, or 
on the station platform where pottery, beading and other articles are sold, 
is a roadside market cooperatively operated. The women bring things. The 
maker of the article is usually the seller. They operate in, grouns. Out 
of the activities that are already extant can develop larger groups which 
can handle larger volume. Groups that are already making and selling com- 
modities can, with additional training and some capital, extend their ac- 
tivities. Other Indian women can learn. 

The women have their greatest chances for success in cooperative 
activities in the fields in which they have long worked, such as foods and 
textiles. They can collect clay, wool, berries, wild rice, nuts, pine cones, 
barks, rushes, willows and fibers which can be made into articles for sale. 
Also they can produce vegetables, butter, eggs and other staple food products. 

Cooperative activity among Indian women is not new nor is it un- 
usual; but it is not developed to its maximum. 



REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR STUDY CLUBS AND COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS 

The Department of Agriculture has recently issued a revised "List Of Avail- 
able Publications", Miscellaneous Publication No. 60. The Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration has issued a comprehensive bibliography entitled "Cooperation in Agri- 
culture", Bulletin No. 4. Either of these lists suggest unlimited material. 

The Cooperative League of America, 167 W. 12th Street, New York City; 
The Eastern States Cooperative League, 112 E. 19th Street, New York City; na- 
tional and state offices of the Farm Bureau Federation; Farmers' Educational 
and Cooperative Union; the Grange; various cooperative associations; State 
Colleges; and State Departments of Agriculture will all be glad to supply what- 
ever information they can. The Indian Service will also help in obtaining 
materials for any group undertaking a study course. 

An association whose members are not familiar with the methods and prin- 
ciples of cooperation is not on a sound foundation. Local study groups may be 
created to acquaint members with the basic principles and methods and to study 
possibilities of cooperative activity in the community. Cooperative associa- 
tions can well afford to encourage members to study their particular problems, 
to conduct educational programs and to supply members with reference material. 

There is an abundance of good material on cooperatives available; scores 
of good books, pamphlets and bulletins. These may be obtained from the issuing 
agencies by giving a general description of what is wanted, or a list of publi- 
cations available may be obtained from which the desired materials may be se- 
lected. Some agencies furnish such information without charge while others 
make nominal charges. Governmental information sources include: the Department 
of Agriculture, the Farm Credit Administration, and the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics of the Department of Labor, all in Washington, D.C. 

48 



FROM I.E.C.W. REPORTS 



New Project At Standing Rock 
( North Dakota ) We started a new 
project the first of this week and 
we find that the timber is much 
heavier than that in which we were 
working on in the last project. 

There are more big trees and 
not so much small stuff, and in 
that case it is so much slower work. 

We saw the trees down, trim 
the limbs off and then saw the trees 
into about eight-foot lengths, and 
if the trees or logs are too big we 
make the cuts shorter, about six 
feet. We go to work with a team and 
sled. In some places, that is upon 
the hills, the snow is almost all 
gone, hut the way we go through the 
woods the snow is packed and there 
is still good sleighing. Steve 
Silk , Leader . 

Well Development At Alabama And 
Coushatta (Texas) Six wells have 
been dug to a depth of twenty or 
twenty-one feet each on the well de- 
velopment project. At this depth a 
form of quicksand is reached that 
cannot be penetrated by digging. 
According to the geologists, this 
layer of quicksand is variable in 
thickness. In one place it may be 
ten feet deep and a short distance 
away it may extend down one hundred 
feet or more. After trying several 
different procedures, Mr. Verity and 
I went to Houston and talked with 
some of the best authorities on wells 
in this section of the State and 
they could tell us nothing that can 
be done to combat the quicksand in 



the dug wells. It will be necessary 
to drill with a rotary drill through 
the layer of quicksand into a water 
sand before a sufficient quantity of 
pure water can be secured. 

The few wells the Indians now 
have contain surface water and we 
thought when the project started we 
could reach a supply of pure water 
by digging deeper. Since our efforts 
have been unsuccessful, the work re- 
ported as completed is in reality 
only preliminary work. J. E. Farley . 

Work On Drift Fence At Fort Peck 
( Montana ) The drift fence crew com- 
pleted one mile of fence this week. 
In spite of the deep snow in the low 
places they have made good progress. 

The grazing unit crews cleared 
off 30 acres this week, they are do- 
ing a nice clean job. One of the 
units that gets a spring run-off will 
produce several tons of hay. This 
was absolutely worthless before. 

Our pile driving crew is getting 
a lot of good experience in operating 
a pile driver. When this job they 
are on is completed, we will have a 
first-class operating crew. All of 
our winter projects are running along 
nicely and making good progress. 
James McDonald . Sub-Foreman 

Truc k Trail Maintenance At Choc - 
taw-Chi ckasaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma ) 
We have been able to do a very good 
job on truck trail maintenance work 
during the past week. Weather con- 
ditions have been very favorable for 



49 



this particular type of work and the 
hoys have made a very nice showing. 

We have considerable work yet 
to be done on our fire lanes, some 
work also on our Forest Stand Im- 
provement and truck trails, and it 
is our intention to have these proj- 
ects in the best possible condition 
just as soon as possible. 

The boys are cooperating very 
nicely and putting forth every ef- 
fort to do a good job on our I.E.C.W. 
projects. Dr. W. E. Van Cleave , 
Superintendent . 

Report From Pierre School ( South 
Dakota ) The past week was a very 
successful one in the way of accom- 
plishment on our jetty and pile driv- 
ing. We also went down the river a- 
bout 70 miles and placed a group of 
men at work in digging our trees for 
the erosion control. We brought in 
three truck loads of native cedar. 
We' dig these cedars with a large 
ball of earth on each one and find 
that it is a good time to transport 
them while the dirt is frozen on and 
in this way roots are not exposed to 
the air and a greater portion of our 
cedars live. 

We are enrolling quite a number 
of new men to help us press this 
work forward as raoidly as possible 
while our weather conditions are 
favorable. S. J. Wood . 

Spring Development -At Truxton 
Canon ( Arizona ) Red Sorings is al- 
most completed and the men are just 
waiting for the tanks to e.et here 
so they can set them in. They have 
the retaining walls cemented and al- 
so the foundation for which to set 
the tank on. The troughs will be 
poured this week. 



The men are making fast progress 
on the protection fences under the 
supervision of Charles McGee. They 
completed one last week and are near- 
ing completion on the New Mud Tank 
fence. 

The goals for the new basket 
ball court and tennis court at Peach 
Springs are well under way and are 
expected to be completed in a few 
weeks. James L. Hendricks . 

Safety Meeting At Osage (Okla - 
homa ) I.E.C.W. at Osage has been 
temporarily halted because of heavy 
snows coming at the end of the week. 
Safety First meetings are being held 
on all the crews on the prevention 
of accidents and transportation of 
men to and from work. The new first 
aid class has grown to 35 members. 

Fire Hazar d Reduction In Timber 
Areas At Sisseton ( South Dakot a) The 
Little Minnesota Crew has been haul- 
ing the cord wood from the river bot- 
tom to higher land in order to save 
it from being washed away when flood 
waters come down. In order to do 
this, they had to dig through snow 
banks sometimes five feet high and a 
distance of over a half-mile. This 
crew has six single-handed men and 
two men with a team. 

The Buffalo Lake Crew has con- 
tinued cutting and hauling the cord 
wood away from the hazard areas. 
This crew consists of seven single- 
handed men and two men with teams. 
W. C. Smith . 

Bridge Constructio n At Five 
Tribes (O klahoma ) We have our boys 
on Project 21 cut into five gangs; 
one gang quarrying out stone, one con- 
structing culverts and bridges, one 
hauling stone, sand and other materials 



50 



for construction, one clearing and 
grubbing out the roadway, and one 
grading. By this we are ahle to 
keep things moving and we find that 
we can accomplish much more this way. 

We are at work on one of the 
larger "bridges this week and have 
the excavation for one side complet- 
ed and are laying the footing stone. 
Two teams and the truck keep the 
stone masons with plenty of stone, 
sand and other material that they 
need. The hoys at the quarry are 
getting out some very fine stone 
this week. The grader gang too has 
done some nice work. They have com- 
pleted 1/4 mile of truck trail and 
in good shape too. B. _C. Palmer . 

Tree Surgery At Fort Totten 
( North Dakota ) The tree trimming 
project has been accomplished this 
week with far greater success than 
was anticipated. Only one member of 
the crew of 12 had ever done any 
pruning and his experience was lim- 
ited to a small orchard in Nebraska. 
184 trees were trimmed, nearly all 
the down stuff was hauled, and work 
was started on the trees marked for 
removal. The crew was divided as 
follows: 2 painters, 1 cavity man, 
1 ground man and 8 pruners. The 
pruners cut away stubs and dead, 
diseased, broken limbs. The paint- 
ers painted the wounds and checked 
up generally on such work as had 
been missed. The cavity man chis- 
eled out rotten and broken spots. 
The ground man picked up the down 
stuff and hauled it to the dump 
where it will be burned immediately. 
C. A. Huber , Trail Locator . 

Tel ephone Line Construction At 
Crow Creek ( South Dakota ) The work 
for the week was mostly spent on 



hauling telephone poles and equipment 
from Chamberlain to Lower Brule and 
the Big Bend Station. We completed 
the hauling of all poles. It looked 
like a big job to load the 60 and 55 
footers but Superintendent Hyde gave 
us a good tip on how to load them. 
By using the hoists off the trucks, 
we loaded them without any heavy lift- 
ing. 

The weather has been quite mod- 
erate. The trucks were all given a 
good washing up and received reserv- 
icing and everything was made ready 
to start building the telephone line. 
Frank Knippling . 

Completion Of Fence At Pima (Ar- 
izona ) The Indians of the Maricopa 
Reservation have completed the 36g 
miles of fence which entirely en- 
closes them, offering nrotection from 
surrounding ranchers' cattle and also 
keeping their own cattle from stray- 
ing. They are very much oleased with 
their fence and are instituting a 
system whereby the fence will be pa- 
trolled at regular intervals, Louis 
Morago , Clerk . 

Completion Of Drift Fence At 
Mescalero ( New Mexico ) The end of the 
week saw the completion of the drift 
fence. Because of the many handicaps 
this project has caused, the crew was 
glad to see the fence coraoleted. The 
past week offered ideal weather con- 
ditions. Joe Montoya . 

Trail Work At Navajo ( Arizona ) 
Work was begun on the trai 1 from Tuba 
City to Red Lake. This type of work 
enables E.C.W. to employ a large num- 
ber of Navajo and Hopi Indians and the 
project is large enough to establish a 
permanent-type of camp for the enroll - 
ees to live in. Van H. Dyer , Jr . Clerk . 



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